3D integrated circuits (3D-ICs) are manufactured by stacking ICs and using through silicon vias (TSVs) as a form of interconnect to create high-density devices. 3D TSVs shorten the path for the signal to travel from chip to chip, or one layer of circuitry to the next. The result is reduced power, increased interconnect density, and increased functionality and performance.
3D TSVs are in production for memory in high-performance computing applications, where the cost/performance benefit is realized. Becoming a mainstream technology in consumer markets will require a dramatic reduction in the cost of manufacturing TSVs. Additionally, increased density to accommodate future bandwidth requirements call for TSVs with aspect ratios of 10:1 or higher.
Vapor-based processes for liner, barrier and seed deposition cannot achieve acceptable costs and yields. aveni’s nanometric buildup processes quickly and efficiently form conformal films on the bottom and sides of TSVs, as well as filling TSVs with atomically fused film stacks. This eliminates voids, opens and shorts, thereby enabling higher yields. Our metallization process is suitable for even the narrowest TSVs, furthering manufacturers’ opportunities to increase density, and improve performance and yield.
Proof point: aveni’s technology has been named the best-known method for TSV manufacturing at two different customer sites; it is in production at one site and finishing qualification at a second.
aveni’s suite of products for TSV barrier, seed and fill include:
- cG3D Barrier – A NiB compound is used to create a Cu diffusion barrier that maintains resistivity levels so fill can take place without needing a Cu seed layer.
- eG3D Seed – eG3D Seed deposits high-quality Cu seed layers directly on the dry copper diffusion barrier, delivering advantages in applications requiring a seed layer.
- eG3D Fill – The final step for filling HAR TSVs builds larger and more uniform grain sizes than industry-standard processes, and doesn’t require additives. As a result, it has significantly higher bath purity.