3D integrated circuits (3D-ICs) are manufactured by stacking ICs and using through silicon vias (TSVs) as a form of interconnect to create high-density devices. 3D TSVs shorten the path for the signal to travel from chip to chip, or one layer of ci…

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Silicon scaling to perpetuate Moore’s law is extending down to the 7 nm node. As such, processes used to create layers of microscopic metal interconnections are posing increased yield challenges for damascene applications that rely on costly vapo…

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